Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) are extremely vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change; indeed, they are among the most vulnerable countries in the world. Reducing the risks associated with the impacts of climate change, including extreme weather, climate variability and accelerated sea level rise, is a fundamental development challenge faced by PICTs. These present significant risks to the sustainable development of PICTs, undermining development gains to date, and may threaten the very existence of some PICTs. Many PICTs have low-lying islands and/or extensive low-lying coastal zones that are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and weather-related phenomena. Unsustainable management of resources, increasing urbanisation and population increase have a compounding effect, further raising overall vulnerability and threatening long-term sustainable development in the Pacific.