(in revision) Is the opposite of an El Ni–o pattern, during which waters in the west Pacific are warmer than normal and trade winds are stronger

Land Degradation

Deterioration of land quality or land forms resulting from natural phenomena or human activity.

Land Use Planning

Branch of planning that determines the options for land use, with the effects on the community.

Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF)

A greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry activities.


Downhill movement of natural soil and rock.


That portion of cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions by developed countries -- countries trying to meet mandatory limits under the Kyoto Protocol -- that may reappear in other countries not bound by such limits. For example, multinational corporations may shift factories from developed countries to developing countries to escape restrictions on emissions.

Least Developed Countries (LDCs)

The world's poorest countries. The criteria currently used by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) for designation as an LDC include low income, human resource weakness and economic vulnerability. Currently 48 countries have been designated by the UN General Assembly as LDCs.

Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG)

A panel of 13 experts which provides advice to LDCs on the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) -- plans for addressing the urgent and immediate needs of those countries to adapt to climate change.

Least Developed Country Fund

A fund managed by the Global Environment Facility that supports Least Developed Countries in the preparation and implementation of their national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs).


Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF)

The LDCF is a fund established to support a work programme to assist Least Developed Country Parties to carry out, inter alia, the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). The Global Environment Facility, as the entity that operates the financial mechanism of the Convention, has been entrusted to operate this fund. More information here.


Acts and other legal instruments established at various levels of governments.


Farm animals regarded as an asset


The supply, handling, transportation and distribution of resources. It includes all aspects of ordering, receiving, packing, moving, storing and delivering.